Types of Water Filtration Methods – All You Need to Know​

What Is Water Filtration?

Water filtration is a general system of eliminating pollutants and particles from water. The aim of this process is to remove undesirable chemicals, suspended solids, bacteria, and biological contaminants from water thus making it safe for drinking. There are a lot of filters that can be used for this process. However, in this article, we will be focusing more on the importance of filtration, as well as the various methods used in our societies today.

Importance of Water Filtration

There are several reasons why we need to filter our drinking water. The most important reasons, however, are to prevent physical, chemical, biological or even radiological contamination. More so, water contains a lot of undesirable bacteria, lead, chlorine, and minerals. Filtration helps eliminate these contaminants and make the water safe for drinking.

Depending on the country where you live in, the tap may be one of your major sources of water. Tap water is good for drinking quite alright. But in some countries, the water may contain some unacceptable minerals like chlorine. In this kind of situation, you’ll need to purify the water before consuming it as you may fall ill if you drink the water directly.

Water purification is a vital procedure for everyone who wants to be free from water-borne diseases so we encourage you to start filtering your water before drinking it.

Various Methods of Water Filtration

There are various methods of water filtration and we will be discussing some below.

  • Reverse Osmosis (RO) Filtration

Reverse Osmosis Filtration is a very popular method of water filtration. It has the ability to reduce all sorts of contaminants which can be dangerous to health.

The Reverse Osmosis filter is designed with a few parts which make it effective and easy to maintain. Furthermore, it is quite affordable and its process of filtration is mostly in 4 to 5 stages.

  • Distillation:

Distillation is a natural method of purifying water. It is a process which involves the removal of simple contaminants as well as heavy harmful metals from water.  Distillation works simply by boiling water into a state of vapor. The vapor then turns back into a liquid which is now considered safe for drinking.

This system uses a lot of energy but produces only a small amount of pure water.

  • ION Exchange Water Filtration

ION Exchange water filters help to soften hard water and also to destroy the harmful radioactive elements in it.

This type of filter works by exchanging unwanted dissolved ions with other similar ions during water flow. Basically, an ION exchange water filter does two things. The first is the deionization, and the second is softening.

The ion exchange process is really a good system of water filtration.

  • Activated Carbon Filtration

The activated carbon filtration system works by using activated carbon to remove sediment and silt from the water. The materials which are used in the manufacture of the filter includes coal, wood, peat, and coconut shell. These materials absorb large particles from contaminated water thereby making the water safe for consumption.

This system of filtration is highly versatile and is also one of the most effective methods of water filtration available.


  • Ultra-Violet Disinfection

Ultra-Violet Disinfection is a modern method of purifying water naturally. This system destroys up to 99.99% dangerous waterborne bacteria in water.

It is an environment-friendly filtration system as it doesn’t require chemicals to work.


  • Alkaline Filtration

Alkaline Filtration is a process of improving the quality of drinking water simply by altering its chemical composition. In this process, the water is made to pass through an electrically charged plate which consequently separates the water into two flows. Alkaline and Acidic. The end product becomes rich in chemicals that are beneficial to the body.


  • Ceramic Water Filtration

Ceramic Water Filters are a lot cheaper than other water filters. They work by extracting microbial protozoa, cysts, and bacteria from water. One of the downsides of the Ceramic Filters is their inability to completely prevent bacteria of very small sizes.

The ceramic water filter has two separate chambers. The first chamber is where you are expected to pour the water you intend to filter into. The water then passes through the filters into the second chamber. The base of this chamber has a tap head for collecting the filtered water.

Ceramic water filters are quite basic in operation and are the reason why they are also the cheapest.

  • Berkey Water Filtration

The Berkey water filtration system is a good back up system for people who are frequently on the move. It is cost-effective and does not require electricity to function. It works primarily by using two technologies which are microfiltration and adsorption. The filter has millions of microscopic pores which allow water through but prevents contaminants.  The Berkey water filter, although cheap, is famous for its portability and ease of use.

In fact, world-famous organizations including UNICEF, Red Cross, and the Peace Crops make use of Berkey Water Filters for their filtration needs.



Water filtration and purification is an important process everyone is expected to carry out before consuming water. It helps us stay healthy and keeps our system working at its best. We have discussed extensively on the importance of water filtration and the various filtration methods used in our societies today. We, therefore, employ you to use any of these filtration methods on your water before drinking it in order to stay in good health.


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